Asmodeus

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Asmodeus
The Devil on Two Sticks,
Prince of Lechery
Asmodeus.jpg
Asmodai-agrippa.svg Asmodai-heydon.svg
AKA Aeshima, Aeshma, Asmodai, Ashmedai, Ashmodei, Asmodee, Asmoday, Asmodaios, Ashmadia, Hasmodai, Hashmedai, Hashmodai, Hammadai, Khashmodai, Khasmodai, Khammadai, Osmodeus, Osmodai, Sidonay, Sydonay, Shamdon, Shidonai, Sakhr
Gender Male ♂
Legions 72
Planet Moon
Zodiac Aquarius ♒

Asmodeus known to Solomon as Saturn, Marcolf, and Morolf ("creature of judgment") - a fallen angel who became the demon of lechery, jealousy, anger, and revenge. He is a deity of Persia's mythological pantheon and an infernal entity in Judaism. In Hell, he rules over gambling casinos. He is said to be the creator of carousels, music, dance, and drama and is currently the ruling patron of French designers. Ashmodai, the "raging fiend" that he is in The Book of Tobit", is said to have gotten Noah drunk, killed the seven men that were to marry Sarah, and was "banished to upper Egypt" by Raphael. He has been depicted as one of the "Vessels of Wrath" and is said to be the son of Adam's first wife Lilith by Samael. The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-melin the Mage says that Asmodeus is the offspring of the incestuous union between Tubal-Cain and Naamah; others call him the "demon of impurity." In Jewish lore he is the father-in-law of Bar Shalmon, a fellow demon. Should you wish to invoke Asmodeus, wear nothing upon your head lest you be tricked by him.[1]

Mag. Sigil supposed by HEYDON 1664 to be a geomantic spirit, ruler of VIA and POPULUS, but the sigil appears to be a poor copy of that given by AGRIPPA 1531 as ruling spirit of the Moon. HEYDON 1664 gives

Gives the Ring of Virtue; Teaches Arithmetic & Astronomy & Geometry & Handicrafts; Answers Demands Truly; Makes a Man Invincible; Reveals & Guards the Places of Treasure. (72)

Plots against Newly-weds so they are Strangers; Makes Married Men Lust After Women & Commit Murder

Bound To / Frustrated By : Dragon's Child (Ursa Major / Great Bear) Raphael / Sheatfish

A Dictionary Of Angels by Gustav Davidson & The Complete Book Of Devils & Demons by Leonard Ashley says Asmodeus was a fallen angel seraphim

[2]

Asmodeus (/ˌæzməˈdəs/; Greek: Ασμοδαίος, romanized: Asmodaios) or Ashmedai (/ˈæʃmɪˌd/; Hebrew: אַשְמְדּאָי‎, romanized: ʾAšmədʾāy, Ashema Deva; see below for other variations) is a king of demons/shedim/jinn,[3][4][5] mostly known from the Book of Tobit, in which he is the primary antagonist.[6] In the Binsfeld's classification of demons, Asmodeus represents Lust. The demon is also mentioned in some Talmudic legends such as the story of the construction of the Temple of Solomon.

Asmodeus was widely depicted as having a handsome visage, good manners and an engaging nature; however, he was portrayed as walking with a limp and one leg was either clawed or that of a rooster. He walks aided by two walking sticks in Lesage's work, and this gave rise to the English title The Devil on Two Sticks[7] (also later translated The Limping Devil and The Lame Devil). Lesage attributes his lameness to falling from the sky after fighting with another devil.[8]

Etymology

The name Asmodai is believed to derive from Avestan language *aēšma-daēva (aēšma meaning "wrath" and daēva meaning demon) based on Aēšma, Zoroastrianism's demon of wrath and further still derived from the Canaanite goddess Ashima.[9] In the Zoroastrian and Middle Persian demonology, there did exist the conjuncted form khashm-dev, where the word dev was the same of daeva.[10]

The spellings Asmodai,[11][12] Asmodée,[13][14] Osmodeus,[15][16] and Osmodai[17][18] have also been used. The name is alternatively spelled in the corrupted forms (based on the basic consonants אשמדאי, ʾŠMDʾY) Hashmedai (חַשְמְדּאָי, Hašmədʾāy; also Hashmodai, Hasmodai, Khashmodai, Khasmodai),[19][20][21][22] Hammadai (חַמַּדּאָי, Hammadʾāy; also Khammadai),[23][24] Shamdon (שַׁמְדּוֹן, Šamdōn),[25] and Shidonai (שִׁדֹנאָי, Šidonʾāy).[24] Some traditions have subsequently identified Shamdon as the father of Asmodeus.[25]

Also known as

In the texts

In the Book of Tobit

The Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit is hostile to Sarah, Raguel's daughter, (Tobit 6:13); and slays seven successive husbands on their wedding nights, impeding the sexual consummation of the marriages. He is described as 'the worst of demons'. When the young Tobias is about to marry her, Asmodeus proposes the same fate for him, but Tobias is enabled, through the counsels of his attendant angel Raphael, to render him innocuous. By placing a fish's heart and liver on red-hot cinders, Tobias produces a smoky vapour that causes the demon to flee to Egypt, where Raphael binds him (Tobit 8:2-3).

Perhaps Asmodeus punishes the suitors for their carnal desire, since Tobias prays to be free from such desire and is kept safe. Asmodeus is also described as an evil spirit in general: 'Ασμοδαίος τὸ πονηρὸν δαιμόνιον or τõ δαιμόνιον πονηρόν, and πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον (Tobit 3:8; Tobit 3:17; Tobit 6:13; Tobit 8:3).

In the Talmud

The figure of Ashmedai in the Talmud is less malign in character than the Asmodeus of Tobit. In the former, he appears repeatedly in the light of a good-natured and humorous fellow. But besides that, there is one feature in which he parallels Asmodeus, inasmuch as his desires turn upon Solomon's wives and Bath-sheba.

Another Talmudic legend has King Solomon tricking Asmodai into collaborating in the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem[5] (see: The Story of King Solomon and Ashmedai).

Another legend depicts Asmodai throwing king Solomon over 400 leagues away from the capital by putting one wing on the ground and the other stretched skyward. He then changed places for some years with King Solomon. When King Solomon returned, Asmodai fled from his wrath.[26] Similar legends can be found in Islamic folklore. There Asmodeus is called Sakhr (Arabic: صخرthe Rock or the Stony One), because in Islamic lore, Solomon banished him into a rock, after he takes his kingdom back from him. There he counts as the king of the jinn.[27]

Another passage describes him as marrying Lilith, who became his queen.[28]

He has also been recorded as the offspring of the union between Adam and the angel of prostitution, Naamah, conceived while Adam was married to Lilith.[citation needed]

In the Testament of Solomon

In the Testament of Solomon, a 1st–3rd century text, the king invokes Asmodeus to aid in the construction of the Temple. The demon appears and predicts Solomon's kingdom will one day be divided (Testament of Solomon, verse 21–25).[29] When Solomon interrogates Asmodeus further, the king learns that Asmodeus is thwarted by the angel Raphael, as well as by sheatfish found in the rivers of Assyria. He also admits to hating water and birds because both remind him of God.

In the Malleus Maleficarum

In the Malleus Maleficarum (1486), Asmodeus was considered the demon of lust.[30] Sebastien Michaelis said that his adversary is St. John. Some demonologists of the 16th century assigned a month to a demon and considered November to be the month in which Asmodai's power was strongest. Other demonologists asserted that his zodiacal sign was Aquarius but only between the dates of January 30 and February 8.

He has 72 legions of demons under his command. He is one of the Kings of Hell under Lucifer the emperor. He incites gambling, and is the overseer of all the gambling houses in the court of Hell. Yet other authors considered Asmodeus a prince of revenge.

In the Dictionnaire Infernal

In the Dictionnaire Infernal by Collin de Plancy, Asmodeus is depicted with a human torso, a rooster leg, snake tail, three heads (one of a man spitting fire, one of a sheep, and one of a bull),[31] riding a lion with dragon wings and neck, all of these animals being associated with either lascivity, lust or revenge.

Later depictions

In Christian thought

Asmodeus was named as an angel of the Order of Thrones by Gregory the Great.[32]

Asmodeus was cited by the nuns of Loudun in the Loudun possessions of 1634.[33]

Asmodeus' reputation as the personification of lust continued into later writings, as he was known as the "Prince of Lechery" in the 16th century romance Friar Rush.[34] The 16th century Dutch demonologist Johann Weyer described him as the banker at the baccarat table in hell, and overseer of earthly gambling houses.[35]

In the Kabbalah

According to the Kabbalah and the school of Shlomo ibn Aderet, Asmodeus is a cambion born as the result of a union between Agrat bat Mahlat, a succubus, and King David.[36]

In Islam or Arabian thought

The story of Asmodeus and Solomon has a reappearance in Arabian and Islamic lore, however Asmodeus is commonly named Sakhr (rock) probably a reference to his fate, because according to Islamic lore, after Solomon defeated Asmodeus, he imprisoned him inside a box of rock, chained with iron, and threw it into the sea.[37] Tabari linked Asmodeus to Surah 37:106 of the Quran in his work Annals of al-Tabari, therefore Solomon was replaced by Asmodeus over forty days.[38]

In One Thousand and One Nights Asmodeus is one of the jinn consulted by a young Jewish boy, seeking to find Muhammad and asked about hell, thereupon he describes the different layers of hell.[39]

Sources

References

  1. Angels & Demons. 
  2. Angels & Demons. 
  3. "Asmodeus" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 635.
  4. Robert Lebling Robert Lebling I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3
  5. 5.0 5.1 Raphael Patai Encyclopedia of Jewish Folklore and Traditions Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-317-47170-7 page 39
  6. "Asmodeus/Asmoday". Judeo-Christian Demons. Deliriumsrealm.com. 25 March 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
  7. Rudwin 1970, p. 93.
  8. Rudwin 1970, p. 50.
  9. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  10. Bane, Theresa (Jan 9, 2012). McFarland, ed. Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-786-46360-2.
  11. Milton, John (1671). Paradise Regained.
  12. Pomfret, John (1724). "Cruelty and Lust". Poems Upon Several Occasions. D. Brown. p. 73.
  13. Mauriac, François (1939). Asmodee; or, The Intruder. Secker & Warburg.
  14. Kleu, Michael; Eayrs, Madelene (2010). Who Are You?. USA: Xulon Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-61579-841-4.
  15. Connell, Evan S. (1992). The Alchymist's Journal. Penguin Books. p. 110. ISBN 0-14-016932-6.
  16. Guppy, Henry (1960). "Tobit". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. 42. Manchester University Press. p. 375.
  17. Garibay Mora, Ernesto (2005). Dictionary of Demons and Related Concepts. Miami, Florida: L. D. Books. p. 103. ISBN 970-732-108-3.
  18. Nares, Robert (1888). A Glossary of Words, Phrases, Names, and Allusions. London: Reeves & Turner. p. 21.
  19. Association of Modern Austrian Philologists (1999). Moderne Sprachen. 43. p. 63.
  20. Ritchie, Leitch (1836). The Magician. Vol. I. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard. p. 84.
  21. de Laurence, L. W. (1914). The Great Book of Magical Art, Hindu Magic and East Indian Occultism. Chicago: The de Laurence Co. p. 183.
  22. MacGregor Mathers, S. L. (1458). The Book of the Sacred Magic. p. 110.
  23. Voltaire (1824). A Philosophical Dictionary. 1. London: J. & H. L. Hunt. p. 286.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Leland, Charles Godfrey (1902). Flaxius: Leaves from the Life of an Immortal. London: Philip Wellby. p. 72.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Asmodeus, or Ashmedai". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls. 1906. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  26. Talmud. Gittin. pp. 68b.
  27. Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3
  28. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  29. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  30. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  31. Mathers & Crowley 1995, p. 32.
  32. Rudwin 1970, p. 20.
  33. Dumas, Alexandre (1634). "Urbain Grandier: Chapter V". Urbain Grandier. Celebrated Crimes.
  34. Rudwin 1970, p. 87.
  35. Rudwin 1970, p. 92.
  36. Humm, Alan. "Kabbala: Lilith, Queen of the Demons". The Lilith Gallery of Toronto. Moffat, Charles Alexander. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
  37. Sami Helewa Models of Leadership in the Adab Narratives of Joseph, David, and Solomon: Lament for the Sacred Lexington Books 2017 ISBN 978-1-498-55267-7 page 167
  38. Tabari History of al-Tabari Vol. 3, The: The Children of Israel SUNY Press 2015 ISBN 978-0-791-49752-4 page 170
  39. Christian Lange Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions BRILL 978-90-04-30121-4 p. 12-13